Instructional Design Models and Theories

An instructional design model provides guidelines to organize appropriate pedagogical scenarios to achieve instructional goals. Instructional design can be defined as the practice of creating instructional experiences to help facilitate learning most effectively. Driscoll & Carliner (2005) states that “ design is more than a process; that process, and resulting product, represent a framework of thinking” (p. 9).

Branch  & Kopcha says that “instructional design is intended to be an iterative process of planning outcomes, selecting effective strategies for teaching and leaning, choosing relevant technologies, identifying educational media and measuring performance” (p. 77).

There are numerous instructional design models. These are commonly accepted design models:


Driscoll, M., Carliner, S. (2005) Advanced Web-Based Training : Adapting Real World Strategies in Your Online Learning, Pfeiffer. ISBN 0787969796

Branch, R. M., & Kopcha, T. J. (2014). Instructional design models. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 77-87). Springer New York.